Carter A, Croft A, Lukas D, et al. Women's visibility in academic seminars: women ask fewer questions than men. arXiv:1711.10985
The authors aimed to determine whether women and men differ in their visibility at academic
seminars and which factors might underlie any biases. They examined the women's visibility through the question-asking behaviour at local
departmental academic seminars (i.e., talks, presentations, colloquia, etc.). Women audience members asked absolutely and proportionally fewer questions than male. Furthermore, when a man was the first to ask a question, women asked fewer questions. Recommendations for increasing women's visibility are proposed.