Friday, March 15, 2013

B - Reporting of research studies in rheumatology

Marušić A, Gasparyan AY, Kitas GD. Promoting transparent and accurate reporting of research studies in rheumatology: endorsement of reporting guidelines in rheumatology journals. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 2013 (in press)
(doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2013.01.005)

Reporting guidelines promote accurate and transparent reporting of health research studies. To assess the endorsement of reporting guidelines in rheumatology journals, this article analyzed the best practices in most influential rheumatology journals. Results showed that only a third of the journals endorsed any reporting guideline, most commonly CONSORT. The journals should also get involved in developing and testing guidelines specific for rheumatology research.

B - Precepts on writer's attitude

Steen RG. Writing for publication in a medical journal. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012;16(6):899-903
(doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.102988)

A dozen precepts should guide the author when writing for publication in the medical field. They focus on the attitude of the writer, rather than the mechanisms of writing. Then, a medical author should be: original, honest, innovative, organized, careful, clear, modest, fair-minded, frank, persistent, rigorous, and realistic. But talent, energy, and luck are needed as well.

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

B - Scientific publications in Nepal

Magar A. Scientific publications in Nepal. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 2012;10(22):243-249

This article analyzes the past and present scenario for scientific publications in Nepal, and future perspectives. Since the start of the first medical journal in 1963, issues related to role of authors, peer reviewers, editors and publishers in Nepal are decades back. Over the years, there has been some developments in terms of numbers of articles published, in local science scenario, in younger generation being more interested in scientific research and evidence-based medicine, in increasing awareness about the importance of research ethics and improvement of journals standards.

B - How to write a scientific manuscript

Liumbruno GM, Velati C, Pasqualetti P, et al. How to write a scientific manuscript for publication. Blood Transfusion e-pub 21 December 2012;1-11
(doi: 10.2450/2012.0247-12)

This article addresses the multiple steps requiring in writing original articles and reviews with the aim of providing the reader with the necessary tools to prepare, submit and successfully publish a manuscript. Types of literature considered are: editorials, commentaries, narrative reviews, qualitative systematic reviews, and quantitative systematic reviews.

B - Reporting guidelines

Simera I. Get the content right: following reporting guidelines will make your research paper more complete, transparent and usable. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association 2013;63(2):283-285

This article provides a brief overview of key reporting guidelines (CONSORT, STROBE, COREQ, ENTREQ, PRISMA, STARD, and SQUIRE) and highlights other resources supporting the writing of high quality research publications which are available on the EQUATOR Network. The majority of guidelines listed on the EQUATOR website are more specific, providing guidance relevant to a  particular medical specialty or a particular aspect of research.

Tuesday, March 05, 2013

B - Biomedical publications in Gulf Cooperation Council countries

Al-Maawali A, Al Busadi A, Al-Adawi S. Biomedical publications profile and trends in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal 2012;12(1):41-47

This study is the first detailed analysis of publication productivity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). It aimed to ascertain: the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; to establish the rate of publication according population size; and to determine the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers.

B - Publication ethics in biomedical journals

Broga M, Mijaljica G, Waligora M, et al. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Science and Engineering Ethics e-pub 1 March 2013
(doi: 10.1007/s11948-013-9431-x)

This article examined publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. It demonstrated significant differences in the prevalence of policies between East European countries that are members of the European Union and South-East European countries that are not. The most common ethical issues addressed were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright and licensing details. The least frequently addressed policies for both regions were image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials.

B - Challenges for authors and publishers

Ajami S, Movahedi F. Challenges for authors and publishers in scientific journal. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 2013;29(1)Suppl:432-436
(doi: 10.12669/pjms.291(Suppl).3550)

This study aimed to express challenges of authors and publishers in scientific journals. More than 100 articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy to discuss issues as authorship criteria, plagiarism, and fraud.

B - Publication of results from clinical trials

Chalmers I, Glasziou P, Goodle F. All trials must be registered and the results published. BMJ 2013;346:f105
(doi: 10.1136/bmj.f105)

Under-reporting of research can lead to overestimates of the benefits of treatments and underestimates of their harmful effects.  Failure to publish all the results from clinical trials distots the evidence base for clinical decisions. The responsibilities of authors are clear, but there is also clear and consistent evidence that academics and non-commercial funders are just as guilty as industry.

B - Management of errors and scientific fraud

Maisonneuve H. The management of errors and scientific fraud by biomedical journals: they cannot replace institutions. La Presse Medicale 2012;41(9):853-860
(doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2012.05.009)

Journals do not have the aim to assess research integrity: that's the institutions' roles. Journals discover research misconduct when articles are reviewed, or after the article is published. The peer review system is criticised, including the anonymous peer review: it has never been proved that quality of anonymous reading was better than quality of open reading. When errors and fraud are identified, journals can publish 3 statements: erratum for errors, expression of concern for errors or fraud when evidence is not established, and retraction when evidence is obvious.

B - Peer reviewers can be credited as authors

Erren TC, Erren M, Shaw DM. Peer reviewers can meet journals' criteria for authorship. BMJ 2013;346:f166
(doi: 10.1136/bmj.f166)

Should some reviewers be credited as authors?  Accurate interpretation of evidence in medicine requires accurate evidence regarding the role of reviewers. In principle, some contributions by reviewers may justify credit for authorship under the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria. No journals seem to specify how to acknowledge advice from reviewers who contributed substantially to the final paper, and a few even discourage such acknowledgements. It may also be necessary for them to declare any potential conflicts of interest, whether theoretical or financial.

B - Referencing accuracy

Luo M, Chuan C, Molina D, et al. Accuracy of citation and quotation in foot and ankle surgery journals. Foot & Ankle International 2013 Febr.4;XX(X):1-7
(doi: 10.1177/1071100713475354)

According to this paper, authors often quote references without reading and understanding the content, and such action may damage the integrity of the author and that of the journal. The aim of this study was to explore the reference accuracy for three of the major foot and ankle surgery journals and two of the major orthopaedic journals. Results showed that citation and quotation errors were still relatively common. The authors suggest that the use of technical editing may reduce the amount of citation errors.