Krimsky S, Sweet E. An analysis of toxicology and medical journal conflict-of-interest polices. Account Res 2009;16:235-253.
A comparison of journals' conflict-of-interest (COI) policies can provide insight into published reports of low compliance rates and inconsistencies in disclosures by the same author in different journals. COI policies of 227 medical and toxicology journals were examined for competing interest criteria, types of submissions covered, monetary or time thresholds for reporting, and penalties for violations. About 85% of journals had written policies, but for more than 75% of these, the level of specificity was minimal or nonexistent, and more than 80% had minimal or narrow scope. Overall, non-specificity, high author discretion, and limited scope were prevalent in these journals.