Wager E, Barbour V, Yentis S, et al. Retractions: guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics. Journal of Critical Care 2009;24:620–622. Also available at http://publicationethics.org/guidelines
Journal editors should consider retracting a publication if the findings are unreliable (due to misconduct or honest error), inappropriately duplicated, plagiarised, or based from unethical research. In cases of inconclusive evidence, non-co-operation of institutions, inability to conduct a fair investigation, or a delayed judgement, journal editors should consider issuing an expression of concern. Retractions are not usually necessary in cases of authorship changes or if small portions of the publication need correction. These guidelines also discuss the form, instigation, and timing of the retraction, and possible legal ramifications.