Stern S, Lemmens T. Legal remedies for medical ghostwriting: imposing fraud liability on guest authors of ghostwritten articles. Medical Writing 2013;22(4):264-271
In industry-controlled research several examples have revealed the use of ghostwriters, and the recruitment of academics as guest authors despite not fulfilling authorship criteria. The authors suggest that the practice of ghostwriting could be deterred through the imposition of legal liability on the guest authors. Thus, a guest author's claim for credit of an article could constitutes a legal fraud.