Steen RG. Retractions in the medical literature: how many patients are put at risk by flawed research? Journal of Medical Ethics 2011;37(11):688-692
This article reports evidence that a large number of patients are put at risk by flawed research. The author evaluated 788 retracted English-language articles published from 2000 to 2010, describing new research with humans or freshly derived human material. Retracted papers were cited over 5,000 times, with 94% of citations being research related, showing that ideas promulgated in retracted papers can influence subsequent research.