Souder L. The ethics of scholarly peer review: a review of the literature. Learned Publishing 2011;24(1):55-72
This review attempts to track the various ethical issues that arise among key participants in peer review systems: authors, editors, referees, and readers. These issues include: bias, courtesy, conflict of interest, redundant publication, honesty, transparency, and training. The literature since 1998 has shown few changes in the traditional peer review system, and reviewers are still not compensated or trained. Emerging online technologies have created new possibilities, as well as new difficulties.