B - Ghostwriting

Bosch X, Ross JS. Ghostwriting: research misconduct, plagiarism or fool's gold? The American Journal of Medicine 2012;125(4):324-326
(doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.07.015)

Ghostwriting and guest authorship practices are thought predominantly to occur when academic researchers collaborate with industry, however they also occur within purely academic collaborations. Those practices flourish as they are perceived as slight, easily comprehensible moral failing, rather than as unethical. The Office of Research Integrity should broaden its definition of fabrication and falsification of credentials, and thus of research misconduct, to explicitly include ghostwriting and guest authorship.